Waste Management Diaries – 4 (EPS)

Our new refrigerator is arriving, and with it we can be sure of something else – Thermocol as voluminous as the fridge itself. Not so long ago, lunch at the food court meant eating off a Styrofoam plate. What really is Thermocol and Styrofoam?

Thermocol waste being accumulated

What is Thermocol/Styrofoam?

Thermocol and Styrofoam are brand names – the former by BASF and the latter by Dow Chemicals.

Thermocol is an EPS (Expanded Polystyrene) and Styrofoam is an XPS (Extruded Polystyrene). Both these polystyrene products are derived from petroleum, just like plastic. Thermocol is so popular that any EPS/XPS is generically called ‘Thermocol’, in the same way that photocopies are called ‘Xerox’.

Polystyrene is a polymer that can be expanded with air (into small white balls that are then further processed to get EPS) or extruded (into the desired shape to get XPS). The manufacturing processes differ and the materials that are created also differ in properties. For waste management purposes we can club them together.

What are the uses of Thermocol/Styrofoam?

Thermocol is strong, lightweight and waterproof, which is why it is used extensively in the packaging of electrical goods and furniture. Once we have given our new belongings pride of place in our homes, we promptly throw this packaging away.

Thermocol/Styrofoam was extensively used for food services (plates, glasses, coffee mugs, take-away containers, insulating boxes, etc.), decorations at functions and school craft projects. I use the word ‘was’ because it is no longer supposed to be in use in Mumbai. After use, it is thrown away, but unlike what is used for packaging, this is usually contaminated with food, paint, glitter and the like.

Decorations thermocol
Thermocol decorations look pretty, but not recyclable

Not all products that have Thermocol/Styrofoam are use-and-throw. Its shock-absorbency property makes it an important material in protective products such as cycling helmets and children’s car seats. Its insulating property makes it useful in ice boxes and flasks, and also in the construction industry.

What is the status of Thermocol/Styrofoam in Mumbai?

Thermocol/Styrofoam that is not used for packaging at the manufacturing stage (i.e. single-use food serving purposes and decoration, including for festivals like Ganesh Chaturthi), is banned in Maharashtra, under the Maharashtra Plastic and Thermocol Products (Manufacture, Usage, Sale, Transport, Handling and Storage) Notification, 2018.

Why is disposable Thermocol/Styrofoam banned?

Just like plastic, Thermocol/Styrofoam has been exploited to make our lives more convenient. We use and throw but where does it go? Thermocol/Styrofoam used for food services and decoration goes straight to the landfill, where it would remain forever. Or it gets dumped in some drain where it obstructs the water flow causing flooding during the monsoons. Or it is burnt which releases carcinogenic fumes into the air.

What happens if you put hot tea into a plastic cup? The cup melts or even if it doesn’t crumble in your hands, some of the plastic has entered the tea that you drink. The same happens with Thermocol/Styrofoam. The delicious hot channa masala on the Styrofoam plate is laced with chemicals as it goes down your digestive tract. Once or twice, nothing is likely to happen, but repeated exposure would not be good for the body. Further, these disposables come straight off the production line. They’re not washed or anything, probably carrying a thin layer of product residue itself – definitely not sterile and not worthy to be eaten off.

Manufacturers and sellers of these items have taken good advantage of our ignorance, so we’ve got this ban coming to our rescue.   

Can Thermocol/Styrofoam be recycled?

No one wants dirty Thermocol. But the clean pieces? Yes!

Thermocol/Styrofoam is not hard to recycle but being voluminous, it occupies a lot of space to store and to transport. When compared to something like waste paper, Thermocol doesn’t have enough value per cubic foot to merit attention. It doesn’t make economic sense for local waste collectors to handle. So this clean Thermocal too inevitably ends up in landfills, drains or gets burnt. Or it gets blown into the sea where it floats and will get eroded by the waves, disintegrate (not decompose) into small pieces and eventually get into the marine food chain.

Not many are aware of the existence of the EPS Recycling Association of India (EPSRAI), a pan-India body that has been doing EPS recycling for several decades. The association comprises of EPS manufacturers and they’ve taken the responsibility of getting back the EPS they put out, for proper recycling.

The Thermocol waste is treated through an electric melting process and it gives lumps of polystyrene as end product. This is sold to plastic manufacturing companies.

What do we do with the Thermocol/Styrofoam in our society?

We were able to get in touch with members of the EPSRAI in Mumbai. We accumulate the Thermocol/Styrofoam until we have enough to fill a small truck. Every 6 months or so we call the EPS collection person and he picks it up.

Packing the EPS
Packing the EPS to transport, Feb 2018
Loaded truck
Truck being loaded, Jan 2019

With most societies, the Thermocol is left for the BMC garbage truck to collect. Even if collected separately, the BMC currently does not have a system in place to handle Thermocol, so it gets sent to the landfills.

Over the past 18 months, our society has saved 3 truck-loads of Thermocol from the landfill fate.

What should we do about our usage of Thermocol/Styrofoam and to ensure that our waste is reaching the right hands?

  • Refuse Thermocol/Styrofoam plates, glasses and other food containers. Though banned, they may be still available, but they’re dangerous for your health and hazardous to the environment.
  • Do not use Thermocol/Styrofoam for decorations and school projects. Forbid your party organiser from using Happy New Year cut-outs, or birthday names made with Thermocol/Styrofoam.
  • When you buy a new product, check if the supplier will take back the Thermocol/Styrofoam packaging. Retailers are supposed to have a return mechanism in place for such packaging.
  • Keep your Thermocol/Styrofoam clean and deposit it at our society’s collection point.
  • You could try to recycle the Thermocol yourself. There is a video that explains how you can do this at home https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ew9Q-tc69YY.

Whom to contact for EPS Recycling?

EPS Recycler – Mr Ashok +918879848708
EPSRAI Mumbai – Mr Pravin Mange +919820085632

This is the fourth post about waste management initiatives at Whispering Palms Xxclusives CHS, Kandivali East, Mumbai.


One thought on “Waste Management Diaries – 4 (EPS)

  1. incurablyoptimisticblog June 28, 2020 / 1:36 pm

    Hey! Myself Sanyam Jain. I am Chief Operations Director at Thermowaste Solutions. It is good to see people spreading awareness regarding thermocol recycling. You mentioned about organizations not recycling household/dirty thermocol. I would like to bring this to your notice that my company has been working on this since past 5 years. We are recycling apx 40MT of thermocol waste every month coming from households. Visit thermowastesolutions.com to know more.


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